Chinese Criminal Entrepreneurs in Canada
An elusive breed of criminal entrepreneurs that originated from China known as the Big Circle Boys (BCB) remain an intrigue to organised crime specialists. Apart from anecdotal reporting about their alleged dominance in the Canadian underworld and elsewhere, little is known about who they are or how they operate. Confusingly, they have been coined with organizational descriptors ranging from ‘cartel’, ‘black society’, ‘organised criminal group’, and ‘mafia group’ to ‘gang’, ‘criminal enterprise’, ‘criminal groupings’ and ‘non-entity.’
Alex Chung, Research Fellow in University College London's Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy
Denis Galligan, Emeritus Professor of Socio-Legal Studies and Director of Programmes, Foundation for Law, Justice and Society, Oxford
Tian Ma, Research Fellow, Utrecht University
Daniel Silverstone, Director, Liverpool Centre for Advanced Policing Studies
Joe Whittle, PhD Candidate, Liverpool John Moores University
Joe Whittle lived in China for 2.5 years and has been studying China related subject matter for the past ten years. He is a graduate of the universities of Bristol and Oxford and is currently based at Liverpool John Moores University where he is completing his part-time PhD on Chinese organised crime and human smuggling networks. Joe has previously worked as a part-time lecturer at London Metropolitan University and for two UK police forces. He has published on aspects of UK policing and Chinese organised crime.